Other researchers have since suggested that the shroud is much older and that the dating process was incorrect because of neutron radiation – a process which is the result of nuclear fusion or nuclear fission during which free neutrons are released from atoms – and its interaction with the nuclei of other atoms to form new carbon isotopes.However, no plausible physical reason has yet been proposed to explain the origin of this neutron radiation.In the process, neutrons are produced without gamma emissions.Analogously, the researchers theorize further that neutron flux increments, in correspondence to seismic activity, should be a result of the same reactions. Walter Mc Crone and his colleagues, the 3 by 14 foot cloth depicting Christ’s crucified body is an inspired painting produced by a Medieval artist just before its first appearance in recorded history in 1356. Mc Crone’s article, ‘‘The Shroud of Turin: Blood or Artist’s Pigment? The pigments red ochre and vermilion with the collagen tempera medium was a common paint composition during the 14th century; before which, no one had ever heard of the Shroud. Mc Crone determined this by polarized light microscopy in 1979. The faint sepia image is made up of billions of submicron pigment particles (red ochre and vermilion) in a collagen tempera medium.
After the results had been leaked, twenty-one scientists from the University of Oxford, the University of Arizona, the Institut für Mittelenergiephysik in Zurich, Columbia University, and the British Museum wrote in a peer-reviewed paper published in Nature in 1989: The results of radiocarbon measurements at Arizona, Oxford and Zurich yield a calibrated calendar age range with at least 95% confidence for the linen of the Shroud of Turin of AD 1260 - 1390 (rounded down/up to nearest 10 yr).Over time, vanillin decomposes and it is possible to derive some estimates of the age of fibers, within limits, from the amount of vanillin that remains.Under normal temperature conditions, vanillin should decompose completely in about 1300 years.Based on these findings, Mc Crone postulated that the Shroud was painted in 1355.Further Research in 1980 In 1980, using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, Mc Crone found red ochre (iron oxide, hematite) and vermilion (mercuric sulfide); the electron microprobe analyzer found iron, mercury, and sulfur on a dozen of the blood-image area samples. Mc Crone’s results and further proved the image was painted twice — once with red ochre, followed by vermilion to enhance the blood-image areas.